version 19, draft 19

Estonian Social Security System



The social security and health care system of Estonia provides citizens and residents of the country with provisions with regards seven schemes. These include the following: health insurance, unemployment insurance, state unemployment allowances, state family benefits, social benefits for disabled people, state funeral benefits and pension insurance.

The following is a brief outline of their health and social care system:

 The sickness and maternity benefits are based on the law established in 1924, amended in 2004 and 2005. The regulations fall under the social insurance system and covers cash and medical benefits for insured individuals. The contributions to the system are from self-employed individuals (13% of payroll) and employers (13% of payroll).

Sickness Benefit

Individuals are offered a daily benefit that is a certain percentage of their reference wage. An estimated 80% of the wage is paid in the event of hospitalization or nursing of children under the age of 12, outpatient treatment, caring for disabled children under the age of 16, sick leave and quarantine periods. 100% of the wage is provided to care for children below 12 years old, occupational diseases, work injuries and incapacity to work due to criminal offence, national or public interest.

Maternity Benefit

All mothers are entitled to 100% of their reference wage for 140 calendar days after the birth of their child – with 154 days for the birth of more than one child or complications at birth, and 70 for adoption of a child under the age of 1 year old.


The regulatory framework for family allowances in Estonia was established in 1922, with amendments in 2005. This falls under the social assistance system, covering all individuals residing within Estonia – including citizens, foreign nationals, their spouses and children, refugees and their children.

Children Birth Allowance

Families are granted 5,000 EEK for the birth of each child, including adoption of a child.

Child Care Allowance

Parents are paid a monthly allowance for each child at 0.5 times of the child care allowance rate to one parent. The child allowance rate is 150 EEK.


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