Career Testing
Career Testing
Career Testing
CAREER PATHS / JAN. 17, 2017
version 20, draft 20

Career Paths: The Ultimate A-Z List of Professions

career paths professions

When used in an organisational context, the term ‘career paths’ describes the growth of the employee within a company, but within career guidance, it’s used to describe the predetermined routes to a profession which can help you find out what a certain profession is going to be like in terms of professional development. Career paths can provide you with essential information about the sequential positions each profession offers, allowing you to visualise the steps to success within a job.

With these, you get a rough idea of what to expect as well as how your career is going to develop from entry to senior level. It also tells you what you need in terms of entry requirements into a job as well as the skills, knowledge and experience that are necessary for progression. As such, planning for your career early on is crucial if you want to become an expert in your field.

Having a clear idea of what the career you choose entails will help you ensure that you are going to enjoy working in the particular field. If you are currently in the process of deciding on a career, it might be wise to start looking into the different career paths available to you and begin working on your own career plan.

For your convenience, we have put together this A to Z list of career paths to help you out.

 

A

Accountant

Accountants are responsible for the continuous management of financial systems and budgets, undertaking financial audits and providing financial advice. If you are choosing this career path, you first need to ensure that you enjoy working with and that you are good with numbers – more than you need to be with people. This is because you will be expected to work in a field where you are required to analyse financial information, prepare reports, financial statements and calculate taxes on a regular basis.

Entry Level

In order to become an accountant, you will have to complete a Bachelor’s degree in accounting and business or finance. During the first three years of employment, you will need to train in the profession and work towards getting the CA or ACA Qualification from a professional institute. This will allow you to become a chartered accountant and/or open your own business.

Professional Level

Moving up the career ladder is possible through a postgraduate diploma in a more specialised area within finance such as economics, accounting and statistics, international accounting taxation, etc.

Senior Level

With some years of experience in the field, you can reach up to a management, corporate finance or consultancy position within an organisation. You can become a manager in two years after qualification and a senior manager three years after that, depending on how big the company you are working at is.

Related Professions

  • Actuarial Analyst
  • Chartered Management Accountant
  • Chartered Public Finance Accountant
  • Corporate Treasurer
  • Financial Manager
  • Forensic Accountant

 

Actor

Actors make use of speech, movement and expression to bring a range of characters to life in order to provide entertainment or, in some cases, education, training and therapy. If you are choosing this profession, you are expected to take part in live stage performances, community theatre, soap operas, radio work, television advertising or film, depending on your interest. In order to become an actor, you will need to be confident and comfortable with taking the lead.

Entry Level

A qualification in drama studies or acting is not essential, though it can be helpful because it offers practical work in the field. Since there will be times of unemployment – with short-term acting contracts on the rise – it will be wise to undertake training in other careers as well.

Professional Level

The more projects you get involved in, the more you develop your skills and build on your experience. For some roles, you may need to learn a new skill in order to be able to perform well, such as singing or dancing, and attend regular workshops on subjects like improvisation, sight-reading and screen acting, voice and movement. Postgraduate courses in directing, drama therapy, scriptwriting and teaching can increase your long-term employment prospects in the field.

Senior Level

You must be prepared for both ups and downs due to the lack of security in this profession. You may not gain extra responsibilities or an increase in your pay, and you may move from one acting contract to another. However, you can get an agent to put you forward for auditions and castings or move into directing, scriptwriting, drama therapy and teaching.

Related Professions

  • Broadcast Presenter
  • Dancer
  • Musician
  • Theatre Director
  • Theatre Stage Manager

 

Aerospace Engineer

Aerospace engineers are responsible for researching, designing, developing, maintaining and testing the performance of civil and military aircraft, missiles, weapons systems, satellites and space vehicles. If you enjoy working with cutting edge technology, you are concerned with improving flight safety and you consider yourself to be a strong analytical thinker, you might be interested in becoming an aerospace engineer.

Entry Level

You will need a degree in aeronautical/aerospace engineering or another related subject in order to enter the field. Also, you can get in through a graduate training scheme that can give you some basic experience working in different engineering departments.

Professional Level

A Master’s degree by a relevant professional body as the Royal Aeronautical Society (RAeS) can help you specialise in a certain area of aerospace engineering such as aerodynamics, propulsion or avionics, and achieve the status of incorporated or chartered engineer. You will also need to stay up to date with key developments in the sector and attend relevant conferences and training courses in leadership and change management, project management and information technology.

Senior Level

With experience, you can progress to management, or specialise in quality control or air accident investigation.

Related Professions

  • Automotive Engineer
  • Chemical Engineer
  • Electronics Engineer
  • Manufacturing Engineer
  • Mechanical Engineer
  • Production Manager

 

Air Traffic Controller

Air traffic controllers are responsible for managing aircraft activity and controlling all aspects of their flight. They supervise and care for the aircraft’s safety and ensure it lands and takes off on the time it is scheduled to do so using radar and radio communication equipment that allows them to communicate with and give instructions to pilots. If you want to become an air traffic controller, you will need excellent concentration skills, numerical awareness and emotional stability.

Entry Level

Qualifications are not essential for this profession, though a Bachelor’s degree or a HND that offers a high level of technical knowledge can help you enter the field.

Professional Level

In order to become a fully qualified air traffic controller, you need to complete up to three years of training, although this number varies depending on the provider. The National Air Traffic Services (NATS) is the main employer of air traffic controllers. As an air traffic controller, you are required to keep your knowledge and skills up-to-date. As such, you will need to go on training courses and receive in-house training in more specialised areas throughout your career. You can get updates within the field from the International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers’ Associations (IFATCA).

Senior Level

With experience, you can move to larger airports. There are also opportunities to become a group supervisor or manager of a watch or a unit, supervising the work of other controllers, training and assessing new recruits or becoming a mentor on the job.

Related Professions

  • Air Cabin Crew
  • Airline Pilot
  • Merchant Navy Officer
  • Passenger Transport Manager
  • Transport Planner

 

Airline Pilot

Airline pilots fly passengers and cargo to designated destinations on leisure, business and commercial flights. They are responsible for the efficient operation of the aircraft as well as the safety of the crew and passengers. If you are interested in becoming an airline pilot, you will need to show a strong personal commitment to the role.

Entry Level

A Bachelor’s degree is not essential, but it can help you stand out from competition. In order to be able to work as an airline pilot, you need to obtain an Airline Transport Pilot License (ATPL) that requires you to complete a certain number of hours and experience in the role. There are two ways to get the license: one, through an integrated course that takes up to 18 months to complete; and two, through modular training which is carried out periodically and can be completed with breaks in between.

Professional Level

Once you get a job with an airline, you will need to complete a type rating course on a company aircraft which allows you to fly that particular type of plane. This can take place at your designated base or at a different airport overseas. First, you will need to work alongside a captain on short-haul flights to get the experience of take-offs and landings.

Senior Level

When you have completed 1,500 hours of flying time, you get your full ATPL and you progress to the role of captain. As a captain, you can train new pilots, take an examining role or fly a larger aircraft. Also, you can become a flight operations inspector or a specialised air accident investigator.

Related Professions

  • Air Cabin Crew
  • Air Traffic Controller
  • Logistics and Distribution Manager
  • Passenger Transport Manager
  • Transport Planner

 

Architect

Architects are responsible for designing new buildings, extensions or alternations to existing buildings. They plan design structures for buildings based on the purpose of their use including private residencies, office buildings, commercial buildings, theatres, factories, etc. They also provide advice on the restoration and conservation of old properties. If you are interested in this career and want to become an architect, you will need to possess critical thinking skills and have a strong attention to detail.

Entry Level

A Bachelor’s degree and a postgraduate qualification are essential for this profession. In order to enter the field, you will need to prepare a portfolio that includes sketches, freehand drawings, photographs and models. The standard entry route into the profession involves seven years in training and higher education:

  • Part 1:An approved degree in architecture that takes up to three or four years.
  • Stage I:12 months of supervised professional experience in architects’ practices or any sector of the building industry.
  • Part 2:Two years of further study for a diploma, further degree or a Master’s in architecture.
  • Stage II:12 months of supervised and recorded professional experience to be able to proceed to the Part III examination.
  • Part III:An examination in professional practice and management that involves a written and oral examination and assessment of the 24 months of practical experience.

Once completed, you will need to register with the Architects Registration Board (ARB) in order to be able to use the title of ‘architect’.

Professional Level

You can apply for a RIBA Chartered Membership once you complete Part III of architecture training and become a chartered architect. As a chartered architect, you will need to complete a minimum of 35 hours of continuing professional development to maintain your competence. With more than five years of experience and recognition in the field, you may be awarded the Fellow of RIBA status and become entitled to use the FRIBA affix.

Senior Level

With experience, you can work as a freelancer on your own projects or set up your own practice.

Related Professions

  • Building Services Engineer
  • Consulting Civil Engineer
  • Contracting Civil Engineer
  • Estate Agent
  • Landscape Architect
  • Structural Engineer

 

Army Officer

Army officers are members of the British Army who have decided to dedicate their time for the greater good, sacrificing their life for the country if need be. Depending on their position and title in the Army, officers have different responsibilities. These professionals may choose to work as commandos, fight in the field, drive tanks or be in the first line of defence. Apart for that, they can also work as doctors, lawyers or chefs in the service of the Army. If you consider yourself to be disciplined, self-confident and physically and mentally strong, then you might be suited to a role within the Army.

Entry Level

You can’t become an army officer in a day, and you will need extensive training to make it happen. You will also need to comply with the following requirements:

  • Be aged between 18 and 28 and 11 months;
  • Meet the requirements as set by the British Army;
  • Complete and pass a full army medical check; and
  • Have at least 7 GCSEs (A* to C) including English, Maths and a science or a foreign language. Also, 2 A levels or equivalent qualifications.

Professional Level

Depending on the route you choose, you will get different opportunities for career development. You can choose to become an army officer for the following positions:

  • Armed forces operational officer: Leads the fighting arms and may command people on the frontline of battle; also directs and operates technically advanced fighting systems on land, sea or air within the Army, the Royal Air Force (RAF) or Royal Navy.
  • Armed forces logistics/support officer: Manages the logistics, support and administrative functions, making sure that each service within the army carries out their role effectively.
  • Armed forces training and education officer: Provides education and training support, carrying out managing and personnel duties, leading, motivating, and acting as a careers consultant and general adviser.
  • Armed forces technical officer: Maintains and checks the operational functionality of ships, aircraft and land vehicles, weapons systems and support equipment as part of a team.

Apart from these, there is a great variety of roles you can take on within the army. The Role Finder on the British Army website can help you discover the possibilities the Army offers and decide what you want to do.

Senior Level

With training and experience as you gradually move up through the ranks of each position and service within the Army, you can become Second Lieutenant to major General, Captain, Major, Lieutenant Colonel and beyond.

Related Professions

  • Firefighter
  • Health and Safety Adviser
  • Health and Safety Inspector
  • Police Officer

 

Art Therapist

Art therapists are responsible for helping other people express their feelings and confront difficult emotional issues through the means of art. They use art as a medium that allows them to communicate with others as an attempt to facilitate awareness and self-development. If you are interested in this profession and want to become an art therapist, you will need a lot of patience, strong communication skills and be creative.

Entry Level

You will need a Bachelor’s degree in art, social work, psychology, occupational therapy, nursing or education, and a postgraduate degree in art therapy or psychotherapy approved by the British Association of Art Therapists (BAAT). You will also need at least five years of relevant work experience (paid or voluntary) in mental health, education, special needs or social sciences to go on to a training course.

Professional Level

In order to be able to practise as an art therapist, you will need to register with the Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC). You can work in the NHS and work your way up or combine private practice, teaching and art therapy in other settings. As a registered art therapist, you will need to work on your professional knowledge and keep your skills up to date or complete a PhD and teach in a specialised area.

Senior Level

With experience, you can become self-employed and build up your own practice; a senior art therapist managing a team of therapists; a therapy unit; or move into teaching.

Related Professions

  • Diagnostic Radiographer
  • Drama Therapist
  • Health Promotion Specialist
  • Nurse
  • Osteopath
  • Psychological Wellbeing Practitioner

 

B

Biologist

Biologists are responsible for conducting research and studying basic principles of plant and animal life, including its origin, relationship, development, anatomy and functions within the environment. If you are interested in this career path, you will have to possess excellent problem-solving and researching skills because you are more likely to be based in a laboratory and/or conduct on-field investigations.

Entry Level

For a career in the NHS, you will need to complete the NHS Scientist Training Programme (STP), which is a graduate entry programme that leads to more senior scientist roles in the field. After completing this, you get to become a trainee healthcare scientist on a salaried three-year fixed-term training programme that involves studying towards an approved and accredited Master’s degree or PhD in your area of specialism.

Professional Level

These entry qualifications can make you eligible for a Certificate of Attainment from the Academy for the Healthcare Science (AHCS) and lead to registration as a clinical scientist with the Health and Care Professions Council. In the NHS, you can move from practitioner to specialist, to team manager and then consultant.

Senior Level

With experience in the field, you can get involved in staff management with a supervisory role and gain more responsibility on the work.

Related Professions

  • Environmental Manager
  • Marine Scientist
  • Medical Scientist
  • Microbiologist
  • Nature Conservation Officer
  • Pharmacologist
  • Physician Associate
  • Research Scientist
  • Soil Scientist
  • Sustainability Consultant

 

C

Cabin Air Crew/Flight Attendant

Cabin air crew members are responsible for providing excellent customer service to passengers as well as ensuring their comfort and safety throughout the duration of a flight. They do this by providing a demonstration of safety procedures and equipment, ensuring that the journey is pleasant, and serving refreshments and meals on board. If you want to become a cabin crew member, you will need to possess excellent communication skills as well as the ability to understand more than two foreign languages.

Entry Level

There are some requirements set by airline providers that you need to comply with in order to enter the profession. Generally, you need to:

  • Be at least 18 years old (21 to work for some airlines);
  • Have a good standard of health and fitness;
  • Meet a minimum height requirement;
  • Have good hearing and eyesight;
  • Have a valid passport permitting unrestricted travel worldwide;
  • Have a Disclosure and Barring Service check; and
  • Go through a medical examination.

Professional Level

After two to five years of experience in the profession, you will gradually get more management responsibilities and you can get the opportunity to become a purser or chief purser. As a purser, you will have to ensure that your cabin delivers the highest level of customer service.

Senior Level

With experience, you can progress to cabin crew supervisor or a senior role becoming a cabin manager or cabin service director. You can also work in ground-based roles like cabin crew training, recruitment, passenger services, marketing or sales.

Related Professions

  • Air Traffic Controller
  • Airline Pilot
  • Freight Forwarder
  • Logistics and Distribution Manager
  • Merchant Navy Officer
  • Passenger Transport Manager
  • Transport Planner

 

Careers Adviser

Careers advisers are responsible for providing information, advice and guidance to people, adults or students, and helping them realise their full potential. They work alongside individuals in a variety of settings, in schools, colleges, universities or independent authorities, to help them make realistic and well-informed decisions about their life and careers. Becoming a careers adviser requires excellent listening skills and the ability to show genuine interest and empathy to other people.

Entry Level

You will need a higher education qualification in careers guidance or experience in an organisation that offers advice and guidance. From there, you can work your way to a professional qualification whilst working. In order to be able to work in this profession, you will need a Disclosure and Barring Service check.

Professional Level

Once you become a qualified careers adviser, you can move on to a supervisory role as a team leader managing a careers centre or a team of advisers.

Senior Level

With experience, you can move into senior management, become self-employed or work as a consultant, researcher or writer.

Related Professions

  • Academic Librarian
  • Patent Attorney
  • Psychologist
  • Social Research Officer
  • Social Worker

 

Charity Fundraiser

Charity fundraisers carry out a range of activities depending on their role and the area they choose to focus on. Generally speaking, they work to increase the amount of donations made to an organisation they support. Essentially, they plan, direct and coordinate activities to raise awareness for a charitable cause. In order to work in the charity sector, you need an undying passion for the kind of work you do, commitment and, of course, a strong circle of contacts.

Entry Level

You will need to show that you have acquired enough knowledge to enter the field, preferably in a fundraising role. You may start as a volunteer and then move to a fundraising officer.

Professional Level

You can then become a fundraising manager, the head of fundraising in a small charity, or even take on a middle management role in a large charity.

Senior Level

With experience, you could move into charity management, become a self-employed fundraising consultant or specialise in a particular area such as corporate or trust fundraising, operations, database management or marketing and communications, where there are more opportunities within larger charities.

Related Professions

  • Charity Officer
  • Event Organiser
  • International Aid/Development Worker
  • Volunteers Coordinator

 

Chef

Chefs are responsible for preparing, seasoning and cooking food using a variety of methods. They may work in a variety of settings and in large kitchens at restaurants or hotels. They are the ones who order supplies, keep records and accounts, and set and plan the menu. If you have a passion for cooking, and you consider yourself a creative individual, you could consider becoming a chef.

Entry Level

There are no set requirements to enter the profession, though a course in professional cookery, catering or hospitality can be helpful. You can start as an apprentice or work as a kitchen assistant or trainee chef.

Professional Level

After some time in the position, you can progress to section chef (station chef) and look after an area (eg: appetisers or desserts, depending on where you work). Then you can become a sous chef, running an entire kitchen when the head chef is busy.

Senior Level

With experience, you can become a head chef (executive chef or chef de cuisine), run the kitchen, create menus and manage the budget. Also, you can specialise in regional dishes like Chinese, Thai or Indian.

Related Professions

  • Accommodation Manager
  • Catering Manager
  • Conference Centre Manager
  • Fast Food Restaurant Manager
  • Hotel Manager

 

Civil Engineer

Civil engineers plan, design, manage and maintain a variety of construction projects, building structures and other facilities including roads, bridges, airports, dams, etc, depending on the area of engineering you choose to focus on (eg: structural, transportation, environmental, maritime or geotechnical engineering). If this sounds like something that you want to do and you are good with numbers and computers, you should consider becoming a civil engineer.

Entry Level

You will need a degree in civil or structural engineering accredited by the Institution of Civil Engineers (ICE) in order to get into the field. You can start as a technician and study part-time or through an apprenticeship.

Professional Level

A Master’s in civil engineering can help you improve your employment prospects in the field. With this diploma, you can become registered as a chartered engineer (CEng).

Senior Level

Once you get incorporated or chartered status, you can move into senior project management roles. You can specialise in an engineering field, work in research, or become a consultant. You can also work for international development and disaster relief agencies.

Related Professions

  • Building Control Surveyor
  • Consulting Civil Engineer
  • Contracting Civil Engineer
  • Engineering Geologist
  • Nuclear Engineer
  • Quantity Surveyor
  • Site Engineer
  • Structural Engineer
  • Water Engineer

 

Cruise Ship Crew

Cruise ship crew positions offer a range of different jobs with cruise companies, including accommodation staff; bar, restaurant and kitchen staff; casino staff; deck and engine room staff; entertainment staff; fitness and beauty staff; nannies and children’s entertainers; and retail staff. If you enjoy travelling and you don’t mind being on board a ship for extended periods of time, you might be interested in becoming a member of the cruise ship crew.

Entry Level

There are no set requirements to work as part of a cruise ship crew, and your personal qualities are more important than qualifications. Being positive, self-motivated and having a can-do attitude is all you need to make a break in this industry.

Professional Level

There are progression opportunities in each role but there is no clear-cut career trajectory for each position. Getting a promotion depends heavily on your performance and the availability of positions.

Senior Level

With experience, you can move into a supervisor role (eg: assistant housekeeper and then head housekeeper) or in other professions/areas where there are other positions available.

Related Professions

  • Actor
  • Babysitter/Nanny
  • Backstage Crew
  • Barman
  • Beauty Therapist
  • Casino Dealer
  • Chef
  • Cleaner
  • Cook
  • Croupier
  • Dancer
  • Hairdresser
  • Holiday Representative
  • Hospitality Manager
  • Housekeeper
  • Lifeguard
  • Massager
  • Musician
  • Personal Trainer
  • Production Manager
  • Receptionist
  • Retail Manager,
  • Sound Engineer
  • Tour Guide
  • Tour Manager
  • Tourism Officer
  • Waiter

 

D

Dancer

Dancers use movement, gesture and body language to portray a character, tell stories, express emotion and explain an idea or a situation to an audience, usually with the accompaniment of music. They can dance for live audiences or in recorded performances for TV, film or music videos. You can become a dancer if you enjoy dancing to a variety of genres (eg: classical ballet, contemporary dance, street dance, etc) and consider yourself a talented and creative individual.

Entry Level

There is no clearly defined career path for a dancer. However, you will need to have a high level of training in at least one form of dance, have begun dancing from a very young age and have completed training at a dance school or academy in order to enter the profession. You can start your career as a dancer or combine another aspect of dance with performance.

Professional Level

You can get more performing experience by joining a local dance company. Alternatively, you can teach in the private or public sector. You can run your own course and work on a contract to teach in leisure facilities, hotels or on cruise ships. Consult the Council for Dance Education and Training (CDET) to find out more about the dance teaching qualifications available.

Senior Level

With experience, you can move into choreography, open your own dance school or buy an existing one.

Related Professions

  • Actor
  • Broadcast Presenter
  • Musician
  • Theatre Director
  • Theatre Stage Manager

 

Dentist

Dentists are responsible for examining, diagnosing and treating diseases and injuries affecting the mouth. They also fit dental appliances and provide advice on how to maintain oral hygiene and retention of teeth. If you want to become a dentist, you will need strong problem-solving, decision-making and listening skills.

Entry Level

You will have to obtain an approved degree in dentistry and register with the General Dental Council (GDC) in order to be able to practise as a qualified dentist. Once you register, you can begin your one-year dental foundation training while based in an approved dental practice with an experienced practitioner who will be your trainer.

Professional Level

After completing your training, you can become a partner in a general practice or set up your own.

Senior Level

If you are going into hospital dentistry, you have the option to go into more specialised areas in the hospital dental service, including oral and maxillofacial surgery, orthodontics, paediatric dentistry and restorative dentistry. In community dental services, you can progress to a senior dental officer position with responsibility in areas such as epidemiology or treating patients with special needs.

Related Professions

  • Diagnostic Radiographer
  • Drama Therapist
  • Health Promotion Specialist
  • Nurse
  • Osteopath

 

Dietician

Dieticians assess, diagnose and treat diet-related problems, and aim to improve the quality of peoples’ lives. They offer advice on how to make health-conscious decisions about food, and assist in the promotion of health and the control of a medical problem. If you have an interest in food and health sciences and would like to help other people improve their dieting habits and lifestyle, you can become a dietician.

Entry Level

In order to practise as a dietician, you need to register with the Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC) and complete an approved programme in dietetics that is also accredited by the British Dietetic Association (BDA).

Professional Level

If you want to work in the NHS, you will start as a basic grade dietician (band 5), move to a dietician specialist role (band 6) and then go on to more advanced roles (band 7). You may choose to specialise in a specific area such as gastroenterology, diabetes or cancer, or work with a specific group of clients (eg: children or the elderly). With experience, you can progress to management level with responsibility for a team, department and budget.

Senior Level

Outside the NHS, you can work with food and drinks manufacturers or multi-national supermarket chains. Alternatively, you can become self-employed.

Related Professions

  • Diagnostic Radiographer
  • Drama Therapist
  • Health Promotion Specialist
  • Nurse
  • Osteopath

 

Digital Marketing Officer

Digital marketing officers are responsible for promoting an employer’s brand, products, services and ideas online using a range of marketing tactics that aim to increase visibility and engagement with the relevant content. If you enjoy using the latest technology and social media to inform the public about news and products in the market, you can become a digital marketing officer.

Entry Level

There are no set requirements to enter the profession; however, a degree in marketing, management, business or a related subject can be helpful. You will also need to have paid or unpaid work experience in a marketing role and some knowledge of digital marketing or advertising. Entry in the field is also possible through an apprenticeship.

Professional Level

You can go higher up in the career ladder, equipping yourself with experience early on. You will start as a digital marketing assistant and then progress to more experienced roles like a digital marketing executive, coordinator or manager within two to five years.

Senior Level

With experience, you can specialise in a particular type of digital marketing like mobile or video marketing. You can become a senior digital marketing officer, head of online marketing or a freelance digital marketing consultant, or move into advertising, sales or public relations.

Related Professions

  • Advertising Account Executive
  • Marketing Executive
  • Media Planner
  • SEO Specialist
  • Social Media Manager

 

E

Ecologist

Ecologists are concerned with the natural ecosystem as a whole and examine the relationships between organisms including people, plants, animals and their environment. Usually, they choose to specialise in a particular type of environment, like marine or coastal areas. If you are the investigative type and enjoy using scientific approaches to solve ecological problems, you might want to become an ecologist.

Entry Level

You will need a degree in an area of biological science or another environment-related subject. You will receive on-the-job training, though you are expected to have basic skills in surveying and identification gained from your degree and previous work experience.

Professional Level

With experience, you can apply for Chartered Environmentalist (CEnv) or Chartered Ecologist (CEcol) status. You may go into teaching, research or ecology consultancy, proceeding with a Master’s or PhD.

Senior Level

You can become a senior ecologist, lead a team of researchers, develop biodiversity plans or act as a consultant on sustainable development projects. In larger organisations, you can progress to senior or principal ecologist and get involved in policy and management work.

Related Professions

  • Animal Nutritionist
  • Field Trials Officer
  • Marine Scientist
  • Sustainability Consultant
  • Waste Management Officer

 

Economist

Economists use economic theories and knowledge to provide specialist advice. They are responsible for studying data and statistics through their knowledge and understanding of economic relationships, and make suggestions on how to improve efficiency. If you are concerned with the economic activity and possess critical thinking and strong mathematical ability, you, too, can become an economist.

Entry Level

You will need a degree in economics or a joint degree in economics or other relevant subjects in order to be able to enter the field.

Professional Level

In the private sector, you can start as an economic research officer or analyst. In the public sector, you can start as an assistant economist with the Government Economic Service (GES) and follow a structured fast-track development programme.

Senior Level

With experience, you can progress to senior levels or become a self-employed freelance consultant.

Related Professions

  • Business Analyst
  • Financial Risk Analyst
  • Management Consultant
  • Product Manager
  • Project Manager
  • Risk Manager

 

Electrical Engineer

Electrical engineers are responsible for researching, designing, developing, testing and supervising the manufacturing and instalment of electrical equipment, components and systems for a variety of uses. They produce electrical equipment and work for many areas in the field such as lighting, heating and ventilation, transportation, construction, etc. If you have strong leadership skills and commercial awareness, you might want to consider becoming an electrical engineer.

Entry Level

You will need a degree in electrical or electronic engineering, or another relevant subject that is accredited by a relevant professional body such as the Institute of Engineering and Technology (IET). You can enter the field through a graduate training scheme offered by an employer.

Professional Level

Getting incorporated or chartered engineer status can improve your career prospects and get you into electrical design or in a more specialised field. This is possible with a Master’s or an accredited integrated MEng degree.

Senior Level

With experience, you can move into project management or teaching, or become an engineering consultant.

Related Professions

  • Automotive Engineer
  • Chemical Engineer
  • Electronics Engineer
  • Manufacturing Engineer
  • Mechanical Engineer
  • Production Engineer

 

Emergency Planner/Management Officer

Emergency planners/management officers are responsible for protecting and maintaining public safety. They do this through planning and directing disaster response or crisis management activities and procedures for natural disasters (eg: hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, etc) as well as acts of terrorism, epidemics and technological disasters. If you are able to stay calm in stressful situations, you are emotionally intelligent and enjoy some adventure, you might enjoy working in this profession.

Entry Level

You will need a degree in business continuity and security management or disaster management. You can join an in-house training course or attend external training with a professional body. The Emergency Planning College (EPC) and Health Protection Agency offer training opportunities and can keep you up-to-date with current issues and developments in legislation.

Professional Level

You can specialise in emergency planning and management or business continuity management, or move into relief and development work, risk assessment, health and safety consultancy, international relief and development work.

Senior Level

With experience, you can get into a senior management role and specialise in a specific area (eg: human or animal health, severe weather planning, etc). You can move into an emergency planning role overseas, supporting government organisations.

Related Professions

  • Armed Forces Operational Officer
  • Armed Forces Technical Officer
  • Armed Forces Training and Education Officer
  • Health and Safety Adviser
  • Health and Safety Inspector
  • Police Officer

 

Event Coordinator

Event coordinators are responsible for organising a range of activities and making arrangements for events, exhibitions, fairs, festivals, conventions and other social gatherings. They work through projects and plan for the production, the conception and the completion of an event. If you consider yourself a leader, you are able to handle stress easily and you love organising all sorts of activities, you might enjoy working as an event coordinator.

Entry Level

You don’t need a specific degree to become an event coordinator but one in event management, hotel or catering management, leisure and tourism, marketing or business can be helpful. You can start as an event organiser assistant and work your way up the career ladder.

Professional Level

You can take relevant courses run by professional bodies to improve your skills and knowledge in more specialised areas such as conference and event planning, customer care, event marketing and copyrighting, finance, health and safety, sales, and sponsorship.

Senior Level

With experience and a good track record, you can run events with lager budgets and progress to a management role. You also have the option to work freelance or start your own event management business.

Related Professions

  • Accommodation Manager
  • Conference Centre Manager
  • Hotel Manager
  • Public House Manager
  • Restaurant Manager

 

Exercise Physiologist

Exercise physiologists are responsible for providing support to athletes and teams. They monitor their training by measuring and assessing physical functions such as respiration, metabolism, body composition, muscle and nutrition, etc. If you have a passion for a high-performance sport, you are self-motivated and you like helping other people, you might want to check out how you can become an exercise physiologist yourself.

Entry Level

You will need a degree in sports science or a closely related subject, including physiology, biomechanics or psychology, in order to enter the field. For some jobs, you might need an MSc in sports and exercise physiology or a PhD.

Professional Level

You will need to undertake on-the-job training whilst working alongside an experienced colleague as well as attend relevant courses and workshops to improve your knowledge in the field. Joining the British Association of Sport and Exercise Sciences (BASES) can help you build experience and stay up-to-date with current trends.

Senior Level

With experience, you can become self-employed by opening your own practice, working in a consultancy or teaching role, or carrying out research.

Related Professions

  • Diagnostic Radiographer
  • Drama Therapist
  • General Practitioner
  • Health Promotion Specialist
  • Nurse
  • Osteopath
  • Psychologist

 

F

Fashion Designer

Fashion designers are responsible for designing unique clothing and a variety of accessories. They often specialise in an area of design clothing such as sportswear, footwear or children’s wear, and choose whether they want to work in high street, ready-to-wear or haute couture fashion. If you are a creative individual and have a passion for designing clothes, you should consider becoming a fashion designer.

Entry Level

You will need a degree in fashion, textiles or any other related subject and some experience in the industry (eg: as a fashion retailer) in order to enter the field. You can start off as an assistant and work your way up from there.

Professional Level

Progression may be slow, and you will need to be proactive and make strong contacts within the industry. As you build your experience, you will get to make more important decisions and have a say on the colour and ‘mood’ of the clothing line for the season.

Senior Level

With experience, you could progress to senior designer, or become the head of a department or design director. Alternatively, you can go freelance and start your own business.

Related Professions

  • Animator
  • Furniture Designer
  • Graphic Designer
  • Illustrator
  • Interior and Spatial Designer
  • Product Designer

 

Film Maker/Editor

Film makers are responsible for editing moving images on film, video or other media, giving meaning to ideas for different projects. They work closely with directors and other production professionals on a shoot. Also, they assemble raw material like camera footage, dialogues, sound effects, graphics and special effects in order to create the desirable result on film.

Entry Level

You can start off as a trainee or an assistant editor and work in the field for around three to four years until you become qualified as a film maker/editor. Whilst you are in this position, you need to build on your reputation and be willing to go the extra mile. You also need to be flexible enough to survive in this fast-changing industry.

Professional Level

After some years, you can get promoted to senior editor and get a position in a management role. As a freelancer, you can progress from small productions to larger projects.

Senior Level

With experience in the field, you can work on your own projects and raise the money to put them into production.

Related Professions

  • Animator
  • Multimedia Specialist
  • Telecommunications Researcher
  • TV/Film/Video Producer
  • UX Analyst
  • UX Designer

 

Fine Artist

Fine artists create different works of art in a range of methods including painting, drawing, sculpting, engraving, printmaking, photography or other media. They have the opportunity to specialise in any of these categories and produce any piece of work based on their own ideas or from another individual or an organisation.

Entry Level

There is no standard way to enter the profession, although the career path of any artist can be unpredictable, depending on your level of commitment to your work. A degree can be helpful, though self-promotion and the use of an agent may be necessary to enter the field.

Professional Level

You can have your own studio or gallery representation and conduct regular shows to get your work seen by a relevant audience. Also, you may need to get involved in a part or full-time job (eg: a teaching position at college or university, or work on community-based projects).

Senior Level

You can get on an art residency (that lasts from 3 to 12 months) and work your way up, equipping yourself with skills and knowledge. Alternatively, you can move into art therapy or art conservation.

Related Professions

  • Art Teacher
  • Art Therapist
  • Furniture Designer
  • Graphic Designer
  • Illustrator
  • Interior and Spatial Designer

 

Firefighter

Firefighters are responsible for saving people and property from fire and other damages. They control and put out fires, deal with bomb alerts, rescue victims from burning buildings, inspect buildings to meet fire safety regulations and give advice on fire prevention to safeguard and protect the community. If you enjoy getting involved in challenging situations or have the secret aspiration to become a hero, you might want to consider going into this profession.

Entry Level

Becoming a firefighter doesn’t require a degree, and personal and physical abilities are considered to be more important than qualifications. Also, you need to be 18 years old or over to get a job as a firefighter. You will need to complete a form and go through the the National Firefighter Selection (NFS) process as well as sit a Personal Qualities and Attributes (PQA) test to ensure that you are suitable for the role. You will also need to pass background security checks by the Disclosure and Barring Service.

Professional Level

Once you become a firefighter, you can get promoted to higher ranks depending on your performance and attendance. There is a clear structured career path in this profession that allows you to move to crew manager, watch manager, station manager, group manager, area manager, brigade manager, and then chief fire officer.

Senior Level

You can become a member of the Institution of Fire Engineers (IFE) if you are interested in fire safety and prevention and/or work towards getting a Large Goods Vehicle (LGV) license to drive fire engines.

Related Professions

  • Armed Forces Operational Officer
  • Armed Forces Technical Officer
  • Armed Forces Training and Education Officer
  • Health and Safety Adviser
  • Health and Safety Inspector
  • Police Officer

 

G

Game Developer

Game developers are responsible for creating, designing and producing games for personal computers, gaming consoles, the internet, tablets, mobile phones and other devices. As a game developer, you can work in design including art and animation or programming. Depending on your own interests, you can learn how to become a game developer or a designer.

Entry Level

You can start working as a quality assurance tester and then progress to leader tester or even enter the industry through programming and design or more artistic roles.

Professional Level

Progression in the field happens relatively fast and you can go from a junior role to a senior one within the first 10 years of your career.

Senior Level

With experience, you can progress to technical director, senior developer, producer or team manager. You also have the option to freelance or set up your own development studio.

Related Professions

  • Application Analyst
  • Business Analyst
  • Cartographer
  • Multimedia Programmer
  • SEO Specialist
  • Software Tester

 

General Practitioner

General practitioners are responsible for providing primary and continuing medical care for patients, diagnosing illnesses and recommending the required treatment. GPs work along with a range of other professionals to facilitate with the physical and mental wellbeing of their patients the best way possible. There is no easy way to become a general practitioner since it requires up to five years of study at a degree level and another two or more to complete a specialist training programme, depending on the subject of your choice, before going into general practice.

Entry Level

You will need a medicine degree and some years of internship training to get into the field.

Professional Level

After you finish your training, you can specialise in a specific area in medicine or healthcare, and develop your expertise on that. You can either work as a salaried doctor or work your way to becoming a principal within a surgery taking on more administrative duties.

Senior Level

Apart from hospital work, there are opportunities for education, training, research and development, in pharmaceutical companies, the prison service or police stations, charity or within medical journalism.

Related Professions

  • Dentist
  • Diagnostic Radiographer
  • Drama Therapist
  • Health Promotion Specialist
  • Nurse
  • Osteopath
  • Psychologist

 

Geoscientist

Geoscientists are professionals who work on the earth’s system and are responsible for interpreting geophysical, geochemical and geological data in order to develop methods and models that will be able to reserve natural resources such as oil, gas, minerals and water. There are many roles in the field, so if you want to become a geoscientist, you can choose from becoming a geophysicist, geologist, geochemist, hydrogeologist or sedimentologist.

Entry Level

You will need a degree and some relevant work experience to enter the field. There are many structured training programmes that can give you the opportunity to start your career in the industry through different projects and assignments.

Professional Level

You can choose to get a professional license and become a chartered scientist. This will allow you to keep up with industry developments and build your professional experience. There are also opportunities in related areas such as seismology and engineering geology.

Senior Level

With experience, you can become a field consultant, or move into teaching or management.

Related Professions

  • Ecologist
  • Energy Manager
  • Environmental Scientist/Engineer
  • Geophysical Data Processor
  • Hydrologist
  • Quarry Manager
  • Water Engineer

 

Graphic Designer

Graphic designers are responsible for creating unique visual content for websites, adverts, books, magazines, posters, computer games, exhibitions and other displays that constitute and reinforce the name of a brand or a product/service that is being promoted. If you are a creative individual and have an eye for detail, you should consider becoming a graphic designer.

Entry Level

You can start as a junior graphic designer and work your way up within three years.

Professional Level

Networking and making contacts is crucial in this industry, so make sure you start building your reputation early on. Also, taking on projects will allow you to gain experience and create a strong portfolio.

Senior Level

After 5 to 10 years within the industry, you can become a senior designer or creative director, or move into a management role. There is also the option for freelance work or starting your own design agency.

Related Professions

  • Animator
  • Exhibition Designer
  • Fine Artist
  • Furniture Designer
  • Illustrator
  • Interior and Spatial Designer
  • Multimedia Designer
  • Product Designer

 

H

Human Resources Officer

Human resources officers are responsible for developing and implementing policies relating to the effective use of staff in a company. They are the ones who need to ensure that staff is up to date in terms of skills and experience within the field, and are responsible for providing training development opportunities whenever they think is necessary in order to improve work performance.

Entry Level

You can start working in a general human resources role and then proceed to a more specialist one. There are many specialist roles available and you may choose to become a compensation and benefits manager, employee relations officer, equal opportunities officer or a recruitment manager, or get into learning and development.

Professional Level

Getting a CIPD qualification can help you become chartered and stay relevant in the field, attending seminars and other important training events. Being geographically flexible can help you develop your career further.

Senior Level

With experience, you can move to a senior or management position and become a Chief Human Resources Officer, providing you with the opportunity to compete for some of the best C-suite jobs of the future. Alternatively, you can become a consultant and offer recruitment services or advice on policy planning.

Related Professions

  • IT Trainer
  • Occupational Psychologist
  • Recruitment Consultant
  • Training and Development Officer

 

I

Information Systems Manager

Information systems managers are responsible for overseeing the installation of computer systems within a company. They are behind the purchase of hardware and software equipment needed for the effective operation of an organisation, and they ensure that everything works according to plan.

Entry Level

As an information systems manager, you have the opportunity to work in a variety of organisations within different industries. However, you will need to equip yourself with some technical support experience prior to moving to a management position.

Professional Level

Responsibilities vary depending on how big the company you work for is. With large organisations, you can get a structured career with increasing management and technical responsibilities, whereas you can customise the role to meet your interests and needs of the organisation in small companies.

Senior Level

With some years of experience in the field, you can gain more specialist knowledge and business experience, and move into technical consultancy, contracting or project management.

Related Professions

  • Application Analyst
  • Business Analyst
  • Cartographer
  • Multimedia Programmer
  • SEO Specialist
  • Social Media Manager
  • Software Tester
  • Web Developer

 

Interpreter

Interpreters are essentially translators but often have different duties and may work in a variety of settings. They are responsible for converting spoken or sign language statements from one language to another and reproducing statements, questions and speeches. Duties vary depending on the specialism or the industry they work in. Types of interpreting include conference, consecutive and public service.

Entry Level

Depending on what you choose to do, you will need different qualifications to enter the field. For conference and consecutive interpreting, you will need a degree in languages or interpreting and a postgraduate qualification in interpreting. Experience in the field as well as strong language skills are important with a non-language degree. For public service interpreting, you will need to become a qualified member of the Chartered Institute of Linguistics (CIOL) and hold a Certificate in Bilingual Skills (CBS) and a Diploma in Public Service Interpreting (DPSI) or a college qualification in community interpreting.

Professional Level

You can become a staff interpreter in the EU and then get promoted to managing a language unit. As a conference interpreter, you can become a consultant interpreter and recruit teams of interpreters for private employers.

Senior Level

With experience, you can move into training or management roles within your chosen sector. You can also choose to become a freelance interpreter but that will require strong networking skills.

Related Professions

  • Academic Librarian
  • Archaeologist
  • Tour Guide
  • Tourism Officer
  • Translator

 

J

Journalist/Reporter

Journalists and reporters are responsible for gathering, interpreting and presenting news. They collect their material and information through interviews, attending events, writing reports and stories, and research. If you are interested in becoming a journalist or reporter, you should know that there are many types of journalism careers you can look into (eg: newspaper journalist, broadcast journalist, magazine journalist, etc) and your choice should depend on your own interests.

Entry Level

At the start of your career, you need to show a willingness and enthusiasm to work in this industry since there is a lot of competition. Graduates with some sort of experience in the field will be preferred by employers. Having a strong circle of contacts can also help develop your career further.

Professional Level

You can work for local or national newspapers, websites and online news, magazines and journals, the trade press, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), independent TV and radio, international broadcasters, news agencies, etc. With some experience, you can become a chief reporter or a specialist writer covering one subject or aspect of news (eg: politics, entrainment, sports, business, etc).

Senior Level

There is the option to go freelance, become a critic or develop a portfolio career, juggling different projects.

Related Professions

  • Broadcast Journalist
  • Editor/Editorial Assistant
  • Newspaper/Magazine Journalist
  • Writer

 

L

Librarian

Librarians are responsible for acquiring, organising and disseminating information to the public (eg: the community, students, researchers and lecturing staff, depending on where they are based). Becoming a librarian is a huge commitment since it’s an important role for the normal and effective operation of a service, whether this is done for the local community, a school or a university. These professionals need to provide excellent customer service, answer enquiries, maintain relationships with other staff, look after electronic resources, and manage and update the information database.

Entry Level

There is the option to work in a public, university or private library and start off as a library assistant.

Professional Level

You should know that there are limited opportunities for promotion in small libraries because there is a lot of competition. In large libraries, there is clearer career progression to management with a focus on a specific subject, service or site. Being geographically flexible and willing to move between jobs can help you develop further.

Senior Level

With experience, you can move into a senior position and become a manager or take the responsibility for a specialist service or collection.

Related Professions

  • Academic Librarian
  • Administrative Assistant
  • Career Adviser
  • Psychologist
  • Public Librarian
  • Receptionist
  • Social Worker

 

Logistics and Distribution Manager

Logistics and distribution managers are responsible for overseeing a product-creation process from start to finish. They organise the storage and distribution of goods and make sure that these products are delivered to the right location in a fast and cost-effective way. Also, they need to liaise with suppliers of raw materials, manufacturers, retailers and consumers.

Entry Level

You can start with a graduate training scheme in order to gain some experience within logistics. These can last about 18 months to 2 years. Also, you may need to take professional qualifications and become chartered since some employers may require it.

Professional Level

There are many opportunities to progress in this industry, and if you are willing to undertake further training and professional development, you can get promoted fast. You may need to move between jobs and different locations, and work abroad because this should help you gain essential experience in the field.

Senior Level

With experience, you can become a consultant or move into a senior position and take on more general managerial duties in business development, overseeing the management of an organisation’s resources.

Related Professions

  • Air Cabin Crew
  • Air Traffic Controller
  • Freight Forwarder
  • Merchant Navy Officer
  • Passenger Transport Manager
  • Transport Planner

 

M

Marketing Manager

Marketing managers are responsible for managing and overseeing the marketing initiatives of a company. This includes researching and analysing market trends, identifying new target markets, coming up with effective strategies, planning advertising campaigns and managing budgets, amongst other duties. Becoming a marketing manager is possible if you think that you possess strong leadership abilities and a keen interest in management.

Entry Level

You will need some relevant experience in the field and strong transferable skills. Some employers may ask for qualifications, but these aren’t necessary. You can start as a marketing assistant and work your way up. The fastest way to do this is to move between in-house departments, different companies or sectors. Also, becoming a chartered marketing manager means the potential to earn a higher salary.

Professional Level

You can choose to stay in a general marketing role or specialise in a specific area of marketing (eg: event management, direct or online marketing, marketing communications, or public relations, etc).

Senior Level

With experience (usually three to five years), you can become a brand or account director or a marketing director. There is also the option of becoming a freelance marketing consultant.

Related Professions

  • Advertising Account Executive
  • Digital Marketer
  • Media Planner
  • SEO Specialist
  • Social Media Manager

 

Mechanical Engineer

Mechanical engineers are responsible for developing and designing machinery and products that can provide easy and practical solutions in mechanical applications and systems. These professionals work at all stages of a product from research and development to design and manufacture, installation and final commissioning. They can work in a number of industries including manufacturing, power, construction and medical engineering.

Entry Level

You can enter the field through a graduate training scheme and choose to work for the local and central government, the armed services, manufacturers, and in any sector or research and development facilities.

Professional Level

With some experience in the field, you can proceed to a higher position where you can take on larger and more important projects and budgets.

Senior Level

Becoming an incorporated or a chartered engineer can improve your career prospects as a whole, and can get you into management or consulting. 

Related Professions

  • Automotive Engineer
  • Chemical Engineer
  • Electronics Engineer
  • Manufacturing Engineer
  • Production Manager

 

Merchant Navy Officer

Merchant navy officers work on many types of vessels including ferries and cruise ships, cargo container ships and carriers. They either work on the deck or in the engineering department of a ship, and their responsibilities vary depending on their position (eg: deck/navigation officer, engineering officer, electro-technical officer, etc) and their ranking. Duties include navigating the vessel using satellite and radar systems, operating and maintaining the mechanical and electrical equipment on board, as well as administration duties.

Entry Level

In order to become a merchant navy officer, you will first need to qualify as a Merchant Navy Officer. You can join the Merchant Navy from the age of 16 as an apprentice or with a degree in nautical science or marine engineering. First, you will work as an officer trainee in one of the three available positions where you will receive the training needed to get the Maritime and Coastguard Agency (MCA) Certificate of Competency (CoC) and the Officer of the Watch (OOW) Certificate of Competency.

Professional Level

You are more likely to move into a managerial role as a merchant navy officer if you work for a large ship. Ranking within the profession begins with the 3rd officer and continues with 2nd officer, chief officer, master and captain. The industry is prosperous as it offers many career prospects, and there are plenty opportunities for development overseas.

Senior Level

You can work onshore and offshore with shipping companies, port authorities, maritime insurance companies and shipping brokers. As an engineering officer, you can also get chartered status.

Related Professions

  • Air Cabin Crew
  • Air Traffic Controller
  • Freight Forwarder
  • Logistics and Distribution Manager
  • Passenger Transport Manager
  • Transport Planner

 

Midwife

Midwives are responsible for providing advice, care and support to women and their babies during pregnancy, labour and the early postnatal period. These professionals help women make well-informed decisions about the health and wellbeing of their babies and provide information on the care and services they will need during the whole process as well as offer essential parenting advice. In order to become a midwife, you are required to have excellent communication skills and be able to retain a caring and calm manner when dealing with women and their families in emotional situations.

Entry Level

If you are interested in this field, you will need to register with the Nursing & Midwifery Council (NMC) and complete a midwifery programme that lasts up to three years full-time. Entry to the profession is quicker as a registered nurse, and you can get qualified in 18 months.

Professional Level

You can choose to specialise in areas such as ultrasound or neonatal care, and with some experience in the field, you can proceed to ward manager or team leader. In order to stay current in the field, you will need to renew your NMC registration every three years.

Senior Level

With additional training, you can become a health visitor, a director of midwifery or a midwifery consultant.

Related Professions

  • Diagnostic Radiographer
  • Drama Therapist
  • Exercise Physiologist
  • Health Promotion Specialist
  • Nurse
  • Osteopath

 

Multimedia Artist

Multimedia artists and animators are responsible for creating animation and visual effects for a range of purposes which are often used in television, movies, video games and other forms of media. Their job is to bring drawings or computer-generated characters to life on screen. If you consider yourself a creative individual and you are computer literate, you might want to look into becoming a multimedia artist.

Entry Level

In order to enter the field, you need to show that you have some experience. Employers give priority to candidates who show that they have completed relevant work placements. From there, you can start as an assistant or junior animator and work your way up. A strong portfolio is essential.

Professional Level

Changing employers will help you gain wider knowledge and experience as well as give you the chance to go after a promotion and a higher salary. From here, you can choose where you want to go (eg: in a management, technical or more creative role).

Senior Level

After having gathered enough experience in the field, you can become a senior designer or studio manager, depending on your own interests. You also have the option to go freelance or start your own studio.

Related Professions

  • Telecommunications Researcher
  • TV Production Coordinator
  • TV/Film/Video Producer
  • UX Analyst
  • UX Designer

 

Musician

Musicians create and perform music in a variety of genres including classical, rock, pop, jazz and folk. Some musicians choose to become composers, instrumentalists, professional singers, or studio or live performers. If you have a musical talent or you are interested in music, you might want to learn what it takes to become a musician.

Entry Level

Throughout your career, you will constantly need to build on your experience of performing in front of an audience and developing your repertoire. You can get a degree, though it’s not essential, and you can start by joining a youth or community orchestra or enter competitions. Networking and self-promotion are important in this industry. Having a strong professional network can help you get personal recommendations leading to auditions and, hopefully, a well-paid job.

Professional Level

You can become a member of an orchestra or a choir, or a solo performer, and perform for audiences or record music. You can write or play music, or both, teach music, or get involved in community arts or arts administration.

Senior Level

You can become the principle player or a section leader in an orchestra or choir. You can also move into conducting, teaching or even start your own band/ensemble.

Related Professions

  • Actor
  • Broadcast Presenter
  • Dancer
  • Theatre Director
  • Theatre Stage Manager

 

N

Nurse

Nurses are responsible for taking care of patients in hospitals, nursing homes, health centres, clinics or prisons who are suffering from a variety of health conditions including minor injuries or serious and long-term illnesses and diseases. Duties include helping doctors with physical examinations, checking patients’ progress, and taking temperatures, blood pressures and pulse rates. Becoming a nurse requires that you get properly qualified within the field as well as completing clinical practice.

Entry Level

You will need a degree in nursing and to register as a member of the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC). Entry is possibly through other disciplines as well, such as biomedical science, social work, psychology, physiology, life and medical sciences, and human biology.

Professional Level

In this field, there are many types of subjects you can specialise in. For example, you have the option to become an adult nurse, a children’s nurse, a mental health nurse or a learning disability nurse. You can also train to become a midwife, a health visitor, or a district or practice nurse. Nursing specialisations include cardiac nursing, infection control, theatre and recovery, and multiple sclerosis. You should note that, as a nurse, you will need to renew your registration with the NMC every three years to show that you meet the post-registration education and practice (PREP) requirements.

Senior Level

A master’s degree can help you become an advanced nurse specialist and then a nurse consultant. With experience, you can become a nursing sister, ward manager or team leader. Also, there is always the option of becoming self-employed or working overseas.

Related Professions

  • Drama Therapist
  • Osteopath
  • Paramedic
  • Exercise Physiologist
  • Health Promotion Specialist
  • Diagnostic Radiographer
  • General Practitioner

 

P

Pharmacist

Pharmacists’ duties vary depending on the environment they work in. Community pharmacists are responsible for preparing medicines, selling products, ordering and controlling pharmacy stock, and giving healthcare advice to the public. Pharmacists based in hospitals give advice on the dosage and the most suitable form of medicine (eg: tablets or injections), and they buy, test and distribute medicines throughout the hospital. If you are interested in healthcare and want to become a pharmacist, check out what this career path entails.

Entry Level

You will need to achieve a four-year degree (MPharm) that is approved by the General Pharmaceutical Council (GPhC), then complete a one-year pre-registration training course in a pharmacy and take a registration exam in order to enter the field. Alternatively, you can complete a two-year pharmacy foundation degree, then start work as a pharmacy assistant or technician and proceed to a Master’s in pharmacy.

Professional Level

If you choose to work in the NHS, there will be plenty of opportunities for promotion and you can gradually progress to team manager or pharmacy consultant. You can choose to get involved in research but this will require a postgraduate qualification on your subject of interest (eg: toxicology) and a good honours degree (2:1 and above).

Senior Level

With experience, you can become a regional or national manager of a large pharmacy chain or set up your own community pharmacy business. Also, you have the option to teach pharmacy at university, work overseas or move to related areas like forensic science, the cosmetics industry or scientific journalism.

Related Professions

  • Drama Therapist
  • General Practitioner
  • Health Promotion Specialist
  • Health Visitor
  • Nurse
  • Osteopath

 

Photographer

Photographers take pictures of ordinary objects, landscapes, people or anything else they find interesting in everyday life. They create visual images for a range of purposes, depending on their specialty, and may be charged to work during weddings, take family and baby photographs and portraits, or work in fashion, food or architecture.

Entry Level

There are no set requirements to becoming a photographer and, as such, there is no structured career path to this profession. You can get qualified in the field, start as a studio assistant or assistant photographer, and work your way up, equipping yourself with relevant knowledge and experience.

Professional Level

Networking and self-promotion are essential in this field because you will need to become more popular amongst the public and be able to show your work. Becoming a member of the Association of Photographers (AOP) can help you meet, engage and exchange advice with other professionals. Having a portfolio and showcasing your work through art and photography exhibitions is an excellent way to get known.

Senior Level

Self-employment and freelance work is popular for photographers, but you can do this alongside other employment activities, short or long-term. If you are working for someone else (eg: publishers, photographic agencies or in education and the public sector), you can become a studio manager in large photographic studios. Alternatively, you can go into teaching or lecturing, or become an agent promoting and selling the work of other photographers.

Related Professions

  • Animator
  • Fine Artist
  • Furniture Designer
  • Graphic Designer
  • Illustrator
  • Interior and Spatial Designer
  • Product Designer

 

Physicist

Physicists are scientists who can work in a wide range of industries. As such, their duties may vary depending on where they are based. They can work with theory and develop ideas to make predictions and explain certain behaviours. Physicists also conduct experiments to test these theories and apply mathematical modelling techniques in an attempt to develop medical instruments and treatments. This helps to explore new ways to produce energy and power, reinforce the means of climate forecasting, etc. If you think you would enjoy working in a challenging field like physics, learn how you can become a physicist.

Entry Level

You will need a degree in physics, applied physics or a related science or engineering subject. A postgraduate qualification is not needed but it can improve your employment prospects and help you build on your experience. You can enter this field through a graduate training scheme.

Professional Level

You can choose to work in health or research institutes, defence or robotics, aerospace, computing and electronics, power generation or gas and oil. If you are interested in education, you can work towards a PhD that will allow you to teach at a university.

Senior Level

With experience, you can get into a management position and oversee the work of other scientists, move into a senior research role, or get into consultancy.

Related Professions

  • Geophysicist/Field Seismologist
  • Higher Education Lecturer
  • Investment Analyst
  • Metallurgist
  • Meteorologist
  • Nuclear Engineer
  • Operational Researcher
  • Radiation Protection Practitioner
  • Research Scientist
  • Secondary School Teacher
  • Seismic Interpreter
  • Systems Developer

 

Police Officer

Police officers are responsible for keeping law and order, investigating crime, supporting crime prevention and protecting the community. They fight for the safety of all citizens and aim to improve their quality of life. These professionals work with other members of the criminal justice system including social workers, schools, local businesses, health trusts and community groups to ensure the safety of individuals. If you think you would enjoy challenge and adventure, perhaps you need to learn what this career path entails.

Entry Level

There are special requirements to become a police officer, as follows:

  • You need to be aged 18 and over;
  • You need to be a British or Commonwealth citizen, a European Union or European Economic Area citizen or a foreign national with the right to stay and work in the UK; and
  • You need to pass background and security checks, and present a clean criminal record.

You will need to undertake training with the Initial Police Learning and Development Programme (IPLDP) to get the Level 3 Diploma in Policing (QCF). The training is divided into four phases: induction, community, supervised patrol and independent patrol practice.

Professional Level

There will be on-going training, supervision, guidance and support in this profession. After getting qualified, you will need to complete a two-year probationary period as a student police officer. From there on, you will get to choose your specialism (eg: criminal investigation department, fraud squad, drugs squad, fire arms, traffic, child protection, underwater search units, etc).

Senior Level

With experience, you can progress to the position of police constable, sergeant, inspector or chief inspector, superintendent or chief superintendent, assistant chief constable, deputy chief constable, or chief constable.

Related Professions

  • Armed Forces Operational Officer
  • Armed Forces Technical Officer
  • Armed Forces Training and Education Officer
  • Firefighter
  • Health and Safety Adviser
  • Health and Safety Inspector

 

Psychologist

Psychologists’ duties are diverse, depending on where they work. Generally speaking, they are responsible for helping individuals improve their psychological wellbeing and cope with the struggles and demands of everyday life. They usually work with people to help them deal with mental or physical health issues such as depression, anxiety, neurological disorders, addictive or challenging behaviours, eating disorders and learning disabilities. If you enjoy giving advice to other people and helping them in any way possible, perhaps you should consider becoming a psychologist.

Entry Level

In order to enter the field, you will need to complete a degree in psychology accredited by the British Psychological Society (BPS) leading to the Graduate Basis for Chartered Membership (GBC). You will also need to complete work experience in the area that you want to specialise in and work towards a postgraduate qualification to equip yourself with the knowledge you need to practise the profession. Finally, you will need to become a registered member of the Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC).

Professional Level

As a psychologist, you can choose to specialise in areas like education, occupational therapy, counselling, neuropsychology, forensics or criminal, clinical, sports and exercise. Each subject has its own structured employment route and offers other specialist subjects that you need to explore before you make a decision.

Senior Level

With some years of experience in the profession (six for clinical psychologists), you can become a consultant or a principal health psychologist. There is also the option to work towards a PhD qualification and go into teaching or research.

Related Professions

  • Children’s Nurse
  • Healthcare Scientist
  • Medical Physics
  • Physician Associate
  • Psychological Wellbeing Practitioner
  • Social Worker

 

Public Relations Officer

Public relations officers are responsible for building, maintaining and managing the reputation of their clients. They may use different forms of media and communications to shape and change people’s opinion on certain products, services and organisations. Through their work, they make sure that the company, organisation or brand they represent is presented in a positive light and in the best way possible. If you are charismatic, eloquent and good with people, you may be suited to this profession.

Entry Level

While there is no set or traditional career path to become a public relations officer, promotion can be quick in this field if you are willing to go the extra mile. You can start as a PR assistant or junior accountant executive for a year or two before you become a PR officer or an account executive.

Professional Level

You can proceed to a higher and management position within another two or three years, depending on your own commitment, personal aptitude and performance, but you also need to be geographically flexible if you are willing to go into a more specialist role at some point.

Senior Level

With experience, you will have the option to go freelance, become a consultant or move into advertising, marketing or journalism.

Related Professions

  • Advertising Account Executive
  • Advertising Copywriter
  • Digital Marketer
  • Marketing Executive
  • Media Planner
  • SEO Specialist

 

R

Researcher

Researchers are essentially scientists, and their work is often laboratory-based, although this largely depends on their subject of study and specialism. Responsibilities may include drawing up research proposals and applying for funding, planning and carrying out experiments, analysing statistical data, presenting findings, teaching and lecturing. If you think you would enjoy conducting research and getting to the bottom of everything, perhaps you should consider becoming a researcher.

Entry Level

You will need to obtain a 2:1 degree in a science subject and, preferably, a postgraduate qualification or PhD. There are many research councils and industrial companies offering CASE studentships and opportunities to gain practical research experience in the field, which is essential to getting employed.

Professional Level

You can choose your specialism and go into life sciences, earth sciences, medical research, physical sciences, industrial science, and research and development. Your employers could be educational institutions (eg: universities, working in the research department), government labs or defence companies.

Senior Level

With experience in research councils, you can progress to a senior research or laboratory management position. If you are in education, you can become a research fellow or professor. Also, becoming a chartered scientist can help you work on your professional development and gain more recognition in the field.

Related Professions

  • Academic Librarian
  • Careers Adviser
  • Psychologist
  • Social Research Officer
  • Social Worker

 

S

Sales Manager

Sales managers are responsible for managing a team of sales representatives that are assigned to sell a product/service, or for working with other businesses who may be their clients. Duties include recruiting and training sales staff, developing sales strategies, setting targets, monitoring the performance of the team and reporting to senior managers. If you have a strong interest in sales as well as excellent leadership and management abilities, you might want to consider becoming a sales manager.

Entry Level

Experience in the field is more important than academic qualifications for this profession. You can improve your employment prospects by getting a degree or a professional qualification from the Institute of Sales Management (ISM), the Chartered Institute of Marketing (CIM) or the Managing & Marketing Sales Association (MAMSA).

Professional Level

How fast you are going to get a promotion depends on your results and performance. In time, you can expect to handle larger and more prestigious customer accounts, take responsibility for key products, take on a sales executive trainer role and/or manage a larger group of people.

Senior Level

With more experience in the field and a good track record, you can become responsible for larger sales areas or be promoted to the position of regional or national sales manager, or even become a sales director.

Related Professions

  • Call Centre Manager
  • Customer Service Manager
  • Medical Sales Representative

 

School Teacher

School teachers work closely with children and students of varying ages to prepare and help them become responsible citizens of society. Duties may vary depending on where you want to work and with what age group. In pre-school and nurseries, teachers are responsible for developing the social and communication skills of children between three to five years old, and focus on the child’s development and preparation into primary school education.

Primary and secondary school teachers develop lesson plans according to the curriculum, they mark and grade students’ assignments, they ensure that they establish a working relationship with students and help them develop those skills and social attitudes that are necessary for life. If you love working with children, you might want to consider becoming a school teacher.

Entry Level

There are different entry requirements depending on where you choose to work.

  • Early Years Teacher: You will need to complete an Early Years initial teacher training (EYITT) course in order to gain Early Years Teacher Status (EYTS). You can get this through graduate entry, graduate employment, undergraduate entry, or through assessment.
  • Primary School Teacher & Secondary School Teacher: You will need a degree and then train as a teacher as part of a postgraduate training course. Generally, there are two main routes into teaching: school-led training and university-led training.

All three routes require that you possess the following:

  • Experience of working with young children through paid work or volunteering;
  • GCSEs (A* to C) in English, maths and a science subject or equivalent qualification;
  • Pass in numeracy and literacy skills tests; and
  • A Disclosure and Barring Service check.

Professional Level

If you want to work as an Early Years teacher, you can move into nursery management or work overseas for charities. You also have the option to work as a temporary teacher.

As a primary school teacher, you can work in state schools but you could also work in independent schools, academies, pupil referral units, hospitals and schools run by the armed forces.

As a secondary school teacher, you can become a leading practitioner and support other teachers. You can also specialise in special educational needs or move into private tuition.

Senior Level

In primary level education, you can become an advanced skills teacher or progress to curriculum leader, deputy head teacher and head teacher. There is also the option of moving to special education needs, private tuition or pastoral care work.

In secondary level education, there is an opportunity to work for an exam board, in a local education authority, with a careers service or as an education officer. With more training and experience, you can become the head or manager of a department or move into inter-school management.

Related Professions

  • Environmental Education Officer
  • Further Education Teacher
  • Higher Education Lecturer
  • Learning Mentor
  • Primary School Teacher
  • Special Education Teacher
  • Teaching Assistant

 

Secretary

Secretaries or administrative assistants are responsible for dealing with queries on the phone, via email or on social media. They greet visitors at reception and information points, update computer records and are in charge of printing and photocopying. They are also responsible for ordering supplies, scheduling appointments and reporting to a higher manager. If you can imagine yourself doing this, you might want to look into what it takes to become a secretary.

Entry Level

Entry requirements for this role vary depending on the employer and the sector you will to work in. Experience is important prior to employment, and having a formal qualification, diploma or a degree is considered to be an advantage.

Professional Level

You can undergo further training and specialise in an area such as legal, financial or medical administration, and choose the industry you want to work in.

Senior Level

With experience, you can progress to a supervisor or office manager position, or move to other departments within the same company.

Related Professions

  • Company Secretary
  • Health Service Manager
  • Intelligence Analyst
  • Local Government Officer
  • Personal Assistant

 

Social Worker

Social workers work with individuals and families to support them through difficult times and situations. This includes children who need protection, people with mental health problems, homeless people, people with all sorts of addictions and substance dependency, as well as young people in care. Social workers are valuable in any form of a community and can help improve the physical and mental wellbeing of individuals. If you can see yourself doing this kind of work, you should find out what it takes to become a social worker.

Entry Level

In order to enter the profession, you will either need an undergraduate or a postgraduate degree in social work. This qualification needs to be approved by one of the four regulators in the UK:

  • The Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC) in England;
  • The Care Council for Wales in Wales;
  • The Northern Ireland Social Care Council (NISCC) in Northern Ireland; or
  • The Scottish Social Services Council (SSSC) in Scotland.

Professional Level

There are many specialist roles in social work and you can choose where you want to be based. You have the opportunity to work as a homeless officer, day care social worker, education welfare officer, healthcare social worker or mental health social worker.

Senior Level

After three to five years of getting qualified, you can become a senior practitioner or a team or care manager where you will have more responsibility in managerial, financial and political issues. You can also choose to become a practice educator and supervise social work students and other staff.

Related Professions

  • Art Therapist
  • Careers Adviser
  • Community Development Worker
  • Family Support Worker
  • High-Intensity Therapist
  • Music Therapist
  • Occupational Therapist
  • Play Therapist
  • Psychologist
  • Speech and Language Therapist

 

Software Developer

Software developers are responsible for writing or changing computer programmes and codes; testing installation, security and compatibility issues; and keeping accurate records of the entire development process. These professionals work closely with project managers and business analysts to ensure proficiency and that everything works the way it should be for their clients. If you think you have what it takes to become a software developer, this is all you need to know.

Entry Level

You will need a degree in computing or a relevant subject such as computer science, information technology, software development, software engineering, mathematics, business information systems, etc. Entry in this field is possible through an apprenticeship or a graduate training scheme if you have an understanding of programming languages and frameworks, project management and development methods.

Professional Level

In time, you can progress to senior developer and gain more team or project management, planning and research responsibilities. You also have the option to specialise in areas like systems design, IT architecture and business systems analysis.

Senior Level

With experience, you can set up your own business, work as a consultant or supervise a programming team providing feedback on their work.

Related Professions

  • Application Analyst
  • Business Analyst
  • Cartographer
  • Information Systems Manager
  • Multimedia Programmer
  • SEO Specialist
  • Software Tester

 

Solicitor

Solicitors are responsible for providing legal support and advice to their clients who may be individuals, groups or organisations, representing them at court. The kind of advice they provide depends on their areas of expertise, which often involves personal issues, commercial work or rights protection. If you can imagine yourself standing in front of a forest of trees fighting for justice and encouraging others to do the same, perhaps becoming a solicitor is the best career move for you.

Entry Level

First, you will need to obtain a law degree and move on to the Legal Practice Course (LPC) where you can get the opportunity to develop the knowledge and skills required to work as a solicitor. At the final stage of the LPC, you will work as a trainee solicitor in a real work setting. In order to qualify as a solicitor, you will also need to take the professional skills course as part of your training period.

If you don’t have a law degree, you can take the Common Professional Examination (CPE) or Graduate Diploma in Law (GDL) conversion course and then the LPC. Entry in the profession is also possible through a solicitor apprenticeship.

Professional Level

There are many specialist areas to choose from in this field. Depending on what your interests are, you will either work in private practice, for commercial or industrial organisations, local or central government or in the court service. As you progress, you might be presented with the opportunity to become a partner in a private practice firm of solicitors or even a manager in an in-house legal department.

Senior Level

With more training and experience in the field, you can become a barrister. You can also join a professional body such as the Law Society to get access to training and events that can boost your professional development.

Related Professions

  • Barrister
  • Barristers’ Clerk
  • Legal Secretary
  • Paralegal (Legal Assistant)
  • Stenographer

 

Speech and Language Therapist

Speech and language therapists work with children and adults to help them overcome a range of difficulties related to speech, understanding, using language as well as feeding, chewing or swallowing. This is a profession that is best suited to individuals who are able to heal, comfort and show empathy to those who are suffering from these challenges who may or may not have come as a result of an injury, stroke, cancer, mental health problems or learning difficulties.

Entry Level

You will need a degree in speech and language therapy or a related discipline approved by the Health and Care Professions Council (HCPC) or a postgraduate course in the same subject. After getting qualified, you can start working within the NHS and work in different locations where assistance is needed (eg: health centres, hospital clinics, special needs schools, etc).

Professional Level

As you progress, you can choose to specialise in a disorder or a specific client group. For example, you may want to help children with special educational needs, eating, drinking and swallowing disorders.

Senior Level

With more training and experience in the field, you can move into teaching, management or research. You also have the option to become self-employed.

Related Professions

  • Art Therapist
  • Children’s Nurse
  • Family Support Worker
  • Health Promotion Specialist
  • Healthcare Scientist
  • High Intensity Therapist
  • Medical Physicist
  • Music Therapist
  • Occupational Therapist
  • Physician Associate
  • Play Therapist
  • Psychiatrist
  • Psychological Wellbeing Practitioner
  • Psychologist

 

Sports Coach

Sports coaches work with a range of individuals to help them participate in sports and support their professional career in sports. They may work with sportspeople, sports teams, community teams or school groups to improve their performance. In the profession, there are performance management, planning and administration responsibilities but duties vary depending on who they are coaching and what type of sport they are coaching.

Entry Level

In order to enter the field, you will need a degree in health science, sports coaching, sports management, sports science or a related area. This coaching qualification needs to be recognised by the national governing body (NGB) for your sport. Alternatively, you can start as a volunteer assistant coach and build up experience or get through an apprenticeship.

Professional Level

Chances for promotion in this field are low because it all depends on how motivated you are to succeed and gain a good reputation. This also depends on results that are measured by an athlete’s or a team’s performance and achievements.

Senior Level

With experience, you can become a coach development officer and get involved with coach education or volunteer management, and help other coaching professionals develop their skills and knowledge in the field.

Related Professions

  • Fitness Centre Manager
  • Sport and Exercise Psychologist
  • Tourism Officer
  • Travel Agency Manager

 

T

Teaching Assistant

Teaching assistants are responsible for supporting learning activities carried out in schools and nurseries. They also support pupils, help teachers in whatever they need and prepare the classroom. If you have an interest in education and want to equip students with the necessary tools and knowledge they need to succeed in their lives, you might want to learn what it takes to become a teaching assistant.

Entry Level

While each school has its own entry requirements, you will need to have experience of working with children and A* to C GCSEs in English and Maths. A degree is not essential but a qualification in childcare or youth work can improve your employment prospects. Entry through an apprenticeship is also possible but you will also need clearance from the Disclosure and Barring Service.

Professional Level

As you progress in the profession and gather experience, you will have the opportunity to become a Higher Level Teaching Assistant (HLTA) where you will need to undergo training and assessment to become qualified. This could mean taking on more responsibilities as well as supervising and coordinating activities in specialist areas of support or curriculum learning.

Senior Level

After getting qualified on an HLTA role, you will also have the option to train as a teacher.

Related Professions

  • Environmental Education Officer
  • Further Education Teacher
  • Higher Education Lecturer
  • Learning Mentor
  • Primary School Teacher
  • Secondary School Teacher

 

Translator

Translators are responsible for converting or translating written material into the ‘target language’ so that it becomes understandable to the people speaking that language. These professionals make sure that the intended message and the meaning of the original text or speech stays the same and it’s as clear as possible. If you have an interest in foreign languages, you might want to learn a thing or two about what it takes to become a translator.

Entry Level

In order to enter the field, you will need a degree in languages and a postgraduate qualification in translation. You must be fluent in two or more foreign languages as well as English and have cultural awareness in any of those countries whose language(s) you are familiar with. Becoming a registered member of the Chartered Institute of Linguists (CIOL) can give you the chance to compete for a position internationally.

Professional Level

You can apply for a paid translation traineeship with the European Commission. These last up to five months and pay around €1,000 per month (about £865). However, positions are numbered and may not lead to permanent employment. You can also specialise in an area of translation and become a legal, technical, educational, media or literary translator. If you want to develop professionally, you have to be willing to relocate, work and/or spend some time abroad.

Senior Level

With experience, you can move to a more managerial in-house role or freelance work by starting your own translation agency. There is also the option of going into teaching.

Related Professions

  • Academic Librarian
  • Archaeologist
  • Interpreter
  • Tour Guide
  • Tourism Officer

 

V

Veterinarian

Veterinarians are responsible for taking care of animals, by providing medical and surgical treatment. They may work with domestic, zoo and farm animals, depending on their own interests, and work to improve their health and welfare, preventing diseases. These professionals can work in education and research, government agencies, the army, animal charities or pharmaceutical companies. If you love working with animals, then you should find out what it takes to become a veterinarian.

Entry Level

In order to enter the field, you need to be registered with the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (RCVS) and obtain a veterinary degree course that is approved by the RCVS. You will also need some pre-employment experience in veterinary practice and then start working as an assistant.

Professional Level

With experience and additional training, you may be offered to become a partner or a principal in a veterinary practice.

Senior Level

You can take an RCVS-approved postgraduate course and become a specialist in equine medicine, small animal surgery, dermatology or cardiology.

Related Professions

  • Animal Nutritionist
  • Field Trials Officer
  • Marine Scientist
  • Sustainability Consultant
  • Waste Management Officer

 

W

Web Developer

Web developers are responsible for building and maintaining websites and web applications. They may work on software and databases, on the interface and visual design or both, and they make sure that their products meet their clients’ needs. If you enjoy working on computers and want to learn more about what makes websites work, you might want to check how you can become a web developer.

Entry Level

Having qualifications isn’t essential but it is preferred by employers to hold a technical degree in subjects like computer science, software engineering, web design and web development. You may start employment through a graduate training scheme, as a junior or as an entry-level developer.

Professional Level

As you progress in the profession and up to five years’ time, you might get the opportunity to work on more important projects and become a senior or mid-level developer where you can manage other junior developers. There is also the option to specialise in a particular area, like e-commerce, programming or project management.

Senior Level

After 10 or more years, when you have gained more experience in the field, you can become a lead developer, technical lead or head of development.

Related Professions

  • Application Analyst
  • Business Analyst
  • Cartographer
  • Graphic Designer
  • Multimedia Programmer
  • SEO Specialist
  • Software Developer
  • Software Tester

 

Writer

Writers produce original written work of fiction and non-fiction for a number of purposes. They may choose a subject they like and are interested in to create unique content that can be read by an audience which can easily relate to it. There are many options for writers, and their duties vary depending on their role and where they choose to work. If you consider yourself to be a creative individual, organised and disciplined with excellent research skills, you may be suited to become a writer.

Entry Level

There are no set qualifications to become a writer; rather, it all depends on your personal interest, motivation or passion for writing. Developing your skills through blogging can be helpful and this could be used as your portfolio to find work.

Professional Level

There are many writing specialisms and you can choose to write children books, novels, short stories, plays or poetry. You can also choose whether you want to write articles or features for newspapers, magazines, radio, film or television, social media, websites or blogs. You may need to promote your work through literacy competitions and supplement your income with other work-related activities.

Senior Level

You may work as a freelance writer as most professionals do and consider self-publishing, selling your books in traditional print, online or in any other form you like. There is also the option of becoming a book critic or teaching creative writing in a school setting.

Related Professions

  • Broadcast Journalist
  • Commissioning Editor/Editorial Assistant
  • Editorial Assistant
  • Magazine Journalist
  • Print Production Planner
  • SEO Specialist
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